"Only those who dare going too far can find out how far one can go" T.S.Eliot


Nanga Parbat („Naked Mountain“ from Sanskrit) is also known as Diamir („King of the mountains“). It is the ninth highest mountain on earth (8125m) and is located in the western Himalayas in Pakistan.


Hermann Buhl Nanga Parbat is one of the most difficult 8000m peaks. Even the normal route, the „Kinshofer-route“, asks for outstanding mountaineering skills and it is objectively dangerous due to avalanches and rockfalls. During the 50s Mt. Everest was the mountain of the British while Nanga Parbat was the goal of frequent German expeditions. The start of its climbing history made it one of the deadliest mountains. Especially German expeditions lost a number of mountaineers and so the mountain was nicknamed „German mountain of fate“.

First ascent
The first ascent was achieved by the Austrian Herman Buhl (July 3, 1953), who was the first man to solo an 8000m peak.

A Brief History of Ascents
1895 Albert F. Mummery from Britain died during his attempt to climb Nanga Parbat from the Diamir (West) face.
1934 several mountaineers die during a German expedition in a snowstorm, the notion of „German mountain of fate“ is introduced.
1937 an avalanche kills 16 mountaineers (including 9 Sherpas) of a German expedition.
1953 Herman Buhl reaches the summit. The expedition was the first led by Karl Maria Herrligkoffer, who initiated many more lateron.
1962 the Bavarians Toni Kinshofer, Siegfried Löw and Anderl Mannhardt climb for the first time the Diamir-slope.
1970 the south-tyrolian brothers Reinhold and Günther Messner climb the highest face in the world (Rupal face) and traverse to the Diamir face. During this first traverse of an 8000m peak Günther Messner dies.
1990 a ski-expedition (Germans, Polish, Jugoslavians) led by Karl Maria Herrligkoffer fails to reach the summit via the Diama glacier and the Diamir West face.
1991 again an expedition led by Peter Wörgötter tries to reach the summit via the 1990 route. Herbert Rainer could reach 7400m.
2000 Hans Peter Eisendle, Wolfgang Thomaseth and Reinhold Messner reach 7500m on the Diamir West face, where it joins the Czech route from 1971.
2005 the Americans Steve House and Vince Anderson open a new route on the Rupal slope.



On Valentine’s Day, red is everywhere. How did red become the color of love? To find out we turn to red, a textile exhibition currently on display at the Textile Museum in Washington, D.C.


The King’s Red Heels

Four hundred years ago in 17th-century France, red was a color of power. French history expert Joan DeJean says red was “always a color associated with palaces, with Versailles.”

According to DeJean, Louis XIV put a little red into every step he took.

“He was a man who was very proud of his legs,” she reports. “He was known as having gorgeous legs and he wore all kinds of fashion that would show them off.”

Louis wore knee-length tight pants and beautiful silk stockings. His heels — which were quite high for a man — were not just red, but scarlet.

Soon nobles all over Europe were painting their heels red. Red was chic, flashy… and expensive.


A Little Red Bug

Red was an expensive color in 17th-century France because at the time, the dye was made from a little bug found in Mexican cactus, the cochineal.

“People made their living trading this dye,” says Rebecca Stevens, curator of Red, the current exhibition at the Textile Museum in Washington, D.C. “It was as good as gold.”

According to Stevens, when the Spaniards got to Mexico in the 1500s, cochineal became the New World’s major export to Europe. The Spaniards harvested the bugs by scraping them off the cactus plants and then drying them. The dried bugs, which looked like small pellets, were then shipped to Europe.

The importers in Europe didn’t know whether the little pellets were a berry, a bug, or a mineral. The Spaniards, says Stevens, “spent a lot of time and trouble keeping that a secret to protect their sources.”

The bottom fell out of the bug market in the middle of the 1800s, when synthetic dyes were invented. Previously, red was only for the rich who could afford the expensive insect dye.

In some cultures, the privilege of wearing red was reserved exclusively for the powerful. According to curator Rebecca Stevens, in some countries it was forbidden for ordinary citizens to wear red. When you saw someone wearing red in Japan or Italy, she explains, you realized, “this is a person of high status.”

But non-nobles broke the rules all the time; some Japanese lined their kimonos in the forbidden color or even wore red underwear.


The Many Faces of Red

Red can be a naughty color — red-light districts and bordellos. It is both the color of Satan and the color of the Roman Catholic Church. Stevens notes that red were a color often associated with divinity; medieval and renaissance paintings show Jesus and the Virgin Mary in red robes.

Red is for happiness — Indian brides get married in red saris. Red for good luck — the one-month birthday of a Chinese baby is celebrated with red eggs.

Red is rarely an accident.

“A textile is not dyed red by chance,” Stevens says. “No you use red for a specific reason whether it’s for love, for fertility, for happiness — you made it red on purpose.”

A Color of Comfort

Back in France, Louis XV’s fashion-loving, trend-setting mistress, Madame de Pompadour, fell in love with red a half-century after the Louis who wore the red heels. She moved red from Versailles velvets to simpler cotton and chintz. In her various chateauxs, she covered sofas and beds with red-colored stripes and prints.

Historian DeJean says that Pompadour used red to make her rooms cheerful and cozy, up to the very end.

“Madame de Pompadour died in a beautiful, comfortable armchair,” DeJean says, “with red and white striped fabric.”

There’s an old fable that talks about a man who found an eagle’s egg and put it in a nest of a barnyard hen. The eagle hatched with the brood of chicks and grew up with them. All his life, the eagle did what the barnyard chicks did, thinking he was a barnyard chicken.
He scratched the earth for worms and insects. He clucked and cackled. And he would thrash his wings and fly a few feet in the air.
Years passed and the eagle grew very old. One day he saw a magnificent bird above him in the cloudless sky. It glided in graceful majesty among powerful wind currents, with scarcely a beat of its strong golden wings. The old eagle looked up in awe. “Who’s that?” he asked. “That’s the eagle, the king of the birds,” said his neighbor. “He belongs to the sky. We belong to the earth– we’re chickens.”
So the eagle lived and died a chicken, for that’s what he thought he was.
How sad when we who are children of the King live as chickens when we could fly with the eagles.
 From an Eagle’s ViewHave you ever wondered what it’s like to fly free,
To see the world as far as the eye can see,
To view the surroundings from high and from low,
To hear only the sound of a distant echo,
To float in the air with the wind being your guide,
To admire many rainbows that the trees tend to hide,
To see the misty mornings over a beautiful mountaintop,
To glide over a flowing river that never seems to stop,
To watch the animals from over a mile away,
Or to rise above the treetops that glisten in the day?
If you were an eagle you would wonder no more,
For it can see things you have never seen before.
Next time you look into the sky of blue,
Think of what it’s like from an eagle’s view.


Here I sit, eating chocolate chips. To quit eating chocolate, I need more than tips. There are so many kinds of chocolate, it’s hard to choose. No matter which one you pick, you just can’t lose.


There is milk chocolate, sweet chocolate, and semi-sweet. I really like dark chocolate! It’s such a treat!!! There is also mint chocolate & white chocolate — I’m not through! There is cereal, cake, cookies, candy, pudding, pie & ice cream too.


Chocolate tastes so rich, and sweet, and sometimes smooth. It can help make you feel better, or help your heartache sooth. There are many chocolate drinks. Have some, just for fun — cappuccino, chocolate milk, mocha & cocoa — try more than one!


Is chocolate as good as a hug, or a pat on the back? What if I’m out of chocolate, when I have my next attack??!! I could just imagine that I’m eating chocolate, I suppose. If I eat lots of chocolate all day long, would I overdose?


Where would I go… what would I ever do… without chocolate? Nothing can compare. Not even one word rhymes with chocolate! Do I take it for granted that I can always get more? I could eat chocolate candies, by the score!


Is chocolate something to fear — is it really a curse? Is it something to be avoided, or is it much worse? Or… is chocolate the eighth wonder? Is it a total delight? Something you savor for so long? Or love with all your might?



Most of the vegeterian belive that eating meat is cruelty, why? Because we have to kill pour animals for eating. They think that the animals who die for your dinner table die alone, in terror, in sadness and in pain. The killing is merciless and inhumane also they concern about the male chickens that are killed for their being able not to lay egges.They look at this subject in one aspect and they don’t consider other aspects.Some people keep animals to use them for providing food or clothes as others plant vegetables for eating and using it in variety kinds of food. We can’t say that we shouldn’t kill the animals for eating because the plants are alive like animals and picking them up is as killing them. If we want to mind about all the creatures so we shouldn’t cut trees to build houses or to make paper because trees have sense like us.


 If we want to like this we have to die of starvin because we have nothing to eat.We all know that the animals are not the same in their nature the same as human. We can never imagin a tiger or a lion to eat plants and also a lamb to kill other animals to eat meat. The human is the same. They are different in theire tastes and human is free to choose one or both of them. It is because of the rule of nature that creatures have to eat or should be eaten otherwise the nature is not fair.In most of the countries like Austrelia the economy is mainly based on nurturing animals like lamb and they export its meat to other countries and if one day all the people decide not to eat meat they become failure and does it really worth? For what reasonable reason? Because of their cruelty and inhumanity? And what about the people that earn their money by killing animals and selling meats to continue their life? Thus, if the reason for not eating meat is cruelty toward animals is not reasonable if we think realistically rather than sensibly about this subject.


Everyone is free to choose what he wants and nothing is abounded unless there is a true and convincing reason to prove the disadvantages of eating meat. 

Master Thief
Coins. Nickels, pennies, shining dollars. Inspecting purses browsing pockets, poking couches. Every thing moves from my long fingers into my deep pockets.
Fell in love once. Beautiful meter maid. Begged her to stay. she awoke first; cleaned me out. Boxes of quarters, bags of dimes. Left a note.
“Baby, collecting is my life. Never could change.”
First Step
It’s been three days since I’ve had drink. Recently I learned about support groups. There’s one for just about every thing these days. I checked around and found a meeting.
Last time was the first time I hade the nerve to stand up and say, “Hello, I’m sandy, and I’m a vampire.”
May be there’s hope.
He’ll never hold me as he holds that guitar. Hasn’t touched me that way in years.
I’ll get inside the guitar, to be in his arms again.
She spent all day. Sacrificing shape, voice, every thing but desires to be held. Finally inside, mute, invisible, she waited.
“Honey, I’m home! I bought a new guitar!
The Dream
As a child, she dreamt of wolves.
They chased her each night for one year. She ran and was never caught.
Later, she met a man. Playful and protective. Sharp teeth, soft fur.
She still dreams of wolves.
But now, as they lope through her dreams, she runs with them.
A Second Chance
His love had gone. In despair, he flung himself off the Golden Gate Bridge.
Coincidentally, a few yards away, a girl made her own suicide plunge.
The two passed in midair.
Their eyes met.
Their chemistry cliked.
It was true love.
They realized it.
Three feet above the water.
The Old and the Restless
Mom, 76 and alone, suddenly decided to visit Europe. With Jean, she told us.
My brother and I thought, okay-we can railroad Mom into Happy Heaven as planned, later.
Meanwhile, we roamed the vast estate, happily discussing arrangements.
Then came the postcard.
“Marrying Gene in Paris! He’s only 64 and a doll! Love Mom.”
It Was a Year Ago
A slight breeze blew as Doug stood starting down at Joey.
“Hello, Joey,” said Doug.
Silence surrounded the two of them.
“Joey, I’m sorry. I didn’t mean it. I didn’t. And, Joey- Merry Christmas.”
Doug placed a rose on Joey’s tombstone and walked away.
“Can you ever forgive me,” he asked, “for driving home drunk?”
Blood Sure
“Can you keep a secret, Em?”
“Blood sure?”
“Look, Ty—”
“Oh, I forgot. Doctor. Ever since you lift the holler, you’s better’n us kinfolk and our ways.”
Emmet sighed, then extended his palm. He winced as his brother’s blood grew red.
“What secret?”
Blood trickled from between their thumbs.
“Em… I got AIDS, man.”
The Bus Station
“One ticket to hell please.”
“I’m sorry; all departures going south are booked up.”
“Anything else leaving tonight?”
“We have one bus heading in the opposite direction.”
“Any seats available?”
“Very long ride?”
“No, not really, but you might want to take a good book along. I’ve heard it’s a mighty lonely trip.”
What The Devil Wanted
The two boys stood watching Satan walk away, the power of his hypnotic eyes still in their minds.
“Geez, what’d he want from you?”
“My soul. How’ about you?”
“A quarter to call home.”
“Oh. Wanna go to get something to eat?”
“Yeah, but I can’t. Now I’m out of money.”
“No problem. I’ve got plenty.”


Norouz is the time of New Year in Iran which begins in the first day of spring. As the spring is the season in which the nature becomes new, Iranians believe that they should also become new by changing bad thoughts and behavior to good ones, so they celebrate this season for their changes that they decide to do in the New Year. They start their work at the beginning of Esfand- the second last month in Persian calendar- they do ‘Khane Tekani‘ which is the extensive spring-cleaning is a national tradition observed by almost every household in Persia to become ready to welcome spring. The night before the last Wednesday of year is in which Iranians celebrate festival of fire which is called ‘Charshanbe Souri‘. This festival is the celebration of the light (the good) winning over the darkness (the bad); in this night Iranians make small fires in the alleys to jump over them while singing the traditional song Zardî-ye man az to, sorkhî-ye to az man (literally: “My yellowness for you, your redness for me; “, but figuratively: My paleness (pain, sickness) for you, your strength (health) for me for exchanging any remaining paleness and evil for the warmth and vibrancy of the fire. Near the time of new year all the members of the family go shopping of new clothes and also buying cookies, fruits, different kinds of pastry and nuts known as Ajîl  small and redfish and also ‘Haft Sinnorouz_11.jpg

or the seven ‘S’s which is a major tradition of Norouz. The haft sin table includes seven items specific starting with the letter S or Sîn (س) in Persian alphabet. As you see in the above picture these are the items of Haft Sin which consist of Sabzeh: wheat, barley and Lentil sprouts growing in a dish symbolizing rebirthSamanu: a sweet pudding made from wheat germ-symbolizing affluenceSerkeh:the dried fruit of the oleaster tree-symbolizing love Sîr: garlic- symbolizing medicine Sîb: apple- symbolizing beauty and healthSomaq: sumac berries- symbolizing (the color of) sunrise Senjed: vinegar- symbolizing age and patience  these items are the major ones but a mirror, a Qur’an, flowers and red fish are also concluded. In the night of new year Iranians make special dishes such as Sabzi Polo Mahi, Reshte Polo, Dolme Barg and Kookoo Sabzi. The traditional herald of the Norouz season is called Hâjji Fîrûz(or Khwaja Pîrûz).


 He usually uses face paint to make his skin black and wears a red costume. Then he sings and dances through the streets with tambourines and trumpets spreading good cheer and heralds the coming of the New Year.At the moment of new year all the family members sit around  the table to pray for others to have a good year and after arriving the new year they begin ‘Eid Didanivisiting of relatives or friends in the 13 first  dates of Norouz. Every family goes to other relatives’ house and visiting them especially the grand person of family and they give money to children as ‘Eidi‘ to congratulate them. The thirteenth day of the new year festival is ‘Sizdah Be Dar’


(literally meaning “thirteen to the door”, figuratively meaning “hit the outdoors on the thirteenth“). This is a day of festivity in the open, often accompanied by music and dancing, usually at family picnics. It represents the time of chaos when families put order aside and avoid the bad luck associated with the number thirteen by going outdoors and having picnics and parties. A tradition associated with this day is ‘Dorugh-e Sizdah‘, literally meaning “the lie of the thirteenth”, which is the process of lying to someone and making them believe it (similar to April Fools Day). 

Tehran” comes from the Persian words “Tah” meaning “end or bottom” and “Ran” meaning “[mountain] slope”—literally, bottom of the mountain slope. Given Tehran’s geographic position at the bottom of the slope of the Alborz Mountains, this appears to be the most plausible explanation of the origin of the name of the city.
Tehran is a sprawling city at the foot of the Alborz mountain range with an immense network of highways unparalleled in western Asia. It is also the hub of the country’s railway network. The city has numerous large museums, art centers, palace complexes and cultural centers.
More than half of Iran’s industry is based in Tehran. Industries include the manufacturing of automobiles, electronics and electrical equipment, military weaponry, textiles, sugar, cement, and chemical products. It is also a leading center for the sale of carpets and furniture. There is an oil refinery nearby.
About 30% of Iran’s public-sector workforce and 45% of large industrial firms are located in Tehran and almost half of these workers work for the government. Most of the remainder of workers are factory workers, shopkeepers, laborers, and transport workers. Few foreign companies operate in Tehran because of the Islamic government and its poor relations with the west. But before the Islamic revolution many western companies were active in this region. Today many modern industries of this city include the manufacturing of automobiles, electronics and electrical equipment, weaponry, textiles, sugar, cement, and chemical products. It is also a leading center for the sale of carpets and furniture. There is an oil refinery nearby. The city has two airports, including Mehrabad International Airport, and Imam Khomeini International Airport. In 2001 a metro system that had been in planning since the 1970s opened the first two of seven envisaged lines — even though the city is prone to earthquakes.tehran_subway.jpg
Tehran relies heavily on private cars, buses, motorcycles, and taxis, and is one of the most car-dependent cities in the world. The Tehran Stock Exchange, which is a full member of the Federation Internationale des Bourses de Valeurs (FIBV) and a founding member of the Federation of Euro-Asian Stock Exchanges, was one of the world’s best performing stock exchanges in recent years.
While the center of the city houses the government ministries and headquarters, the commercial centers are more located toward “Valiasr Street”, “Taleghani Ave”, and “Beheshti Ave”. Further north. Although administratively separate, Rey, Shemiran, and Karaj are often considered part of the larger Tehran metropolitan area.
Tehran also contains Iran’s largest military academy, and several religious schools and seminaries.
Tehran was the first city in the Middle East to host the Asian Games. The 7th Asian Summer Games in 1974, was held with the participation of 2,363 athletes and officials from 25 countries.
Tehran is also the site of Iran’s national football stadium on Azadi Sport Complex with 100,000 seating capacity. Many of the top matches of Iran’s Premier League are held here.
Within 10 minutes of driving distance from Tehran lies a ski resort. Tochal is the world’s fifth highest ski resort at over 3,730 meters (12,240 ft) at its highest 7th station. The resort was completed in 1976 shortly before the overthrow of the Shah.
The Azadi Tower is the first landmark visitors come across when arriving from the Mehrabad International Airport. The tower has become an icon for Tehran and a national symbol of Iran.                                                             1.jpg
The Tehran International Trade and Convention Center, also called The Milad Complex, is one of the largest structures in Iranian architecture. It is scheduled to be finished in late 2007. The complex contains the world’s 4th highest tower which has several restaurants, a five star hotel, a convention center, a world trade center, and an IT park (to be completed by March 2007). The complex seeks to respond to the needs of business in the globalized world of the 21st century by offering facilities combining trade, information, communication, convention and accommodation all in one place. The Milad Tower is predicted to replace the long-time symbol of Tehran, the Azadi Tower.
Tehran, like many big cities, suffers from severe air pollution and the city is often covered by smog making breathing difficult and causing widespread pulmonary illnesses. It is estimated that about 27 people die each day from pollution-related diseases.tehran.jpg
source:www.wikipedia, the free